Unemployment and under-employment increase the exposure of youth to many social and economic risks. The world faces a great challenge, particularly in poor and conflict-affected countries to ensure sustainable livelihoods for young people. The lack of prospects and limited social and political opportunities to engage productively within society perpetuates poverty. This leads to youth involvement in conflict and violence, a higher exposure to the risks of HIV/AIDS, and is a key determinant leading to protracted or re-emerging conflict. Excluded youth are also prime targets for recruitment by gangs, drug traffickers, rebels, warlords and militia.